Information Regarding Ingredients and Equipment


HYDROMETER Wine Ingredients


Basic facts

Volume of 1 kg dissolved sugar = 0,63 litres

Weight of 1 litre of dissolved sugar = 1,59 kg

Volume of 1 kg extract = 0,63 litres

Weight of 1 litre of dissolved extract = 1,59 kg

Weight of 1 litre alcohol = 0,8 kg (800 grammes)

Weight of 1 litre of water = 1 kg (1 000 grammes)

Wine comprises

Residual sugar

2-5% (20-50 grammes/litre) extract (unfermented residues such as
colour, taste, vegetable matter, aromatics)




Example, a white wine with 10% alcohol:

This gives 1 001 grammes, i.e., 1 grammes over 1 kg =
+1 degree on the hydrometer

OE Hydrometer

  • 27 grammes
  • 30 grammes
  • 80 grammes
  • 864 grammes

1 001 grammes
1 grammes over 1 kg = +1 degree on the hydrometer (with Oechslescale)


Hydrometer Timing Sugar Additions

Basic facts:

Fully fermented hydrometer degrees divided by 8 = volume of

2,7 grammes of sugar gives 1 hydrometer (with Oechslescale)
degree in 1 litre of liquid

17 grammes of sugar ferments to 1% alcohol in 1 litre of wine

Wine made with fruit or grape juice: Decide how much alcohol your wine is going to have: for light wine 9-12, or strong wine 17%. Calculate the percentage of alcohol x litres x 17 grammes sugar. Deduct the amount of sugar already in the juice. Add the difference.

Determine the sugar content of the juice or must. Degress Brix = % sugar, thick dilute a little juice in the same proportions in a measuring glass. The hydrometer reading x 2 grammes of sugar in the juice.

Proceed as follows: You are making 20 litres of wine with an alcohol strength of 11%. 20 x 11% x 17 grammes of sugar is 3.740 grammes. You use 5 kg of grape juice containing 650 grammes of sugar. There thus remains 490 grammes of sugar to add before fermentation. Ferment out the wine (too dry), then add sugar for the taste and body.

Alternatively: You have 20 litres of juice and wish to produce 20 litres of wine with 10% alcohol. You want a residual sugar level of 0 degrees on the hydrometer. Dilute the juice in the same proportion as the entire batch is to be diluted, 1 + 3 (50 ml + 150 ml = 2 dl) which when measured shows a +70 degrees hydrometer (with Oechslescale) reading. You need a reading of 80 degrees to achieve 10% alcohol to 0 degrees, so you are short by 10 degrees. 10 degrees x 2.7 grammes sugar x 20 litres = dissolve 540 grammes of sugar directly in the must.

If you are using dried fruit, it does not often contain much sugar. If using the tables in the book “Home Winemaking” consider the dried fruit as being sugar free. Note that the added sugar must be dissolved (in water or must) before it will ferment.

You can eat your rum too in the form of tortuga rum cake

If you thought that you could only drink your rum straight or in the form of delicious cocktails then you should understand that you can eat your rum too in the form of tortuga rum cake. These delectable cakes are available in various flavors and are not only fun to eat but also make for excellent gifts to be given to loved ones that have a soft corner for rum and cakes.

This scrumptious rum cake is the creation of Robert and Carlene Hamaty, founders of the Tortuga Rum Company Ltd, operating in the Cayman Islands. Their rum recipe used in their delicious cakes is a secret except for the fact that only the best Jamaican rum is used to infuse and moisten their cakes in order to make them release their juicy contents right in your mouth with the very first bite. Since the company also produces some of the best rums and liqueurs flowing within and out of the Cayman Islands, their expertise has managed to turn their cake into an instant hit all across the globe.

Even though the tortuga rum cake started out as a small business venture, its popularity turned it into an excellent must-have for tourists visiting the island and its growing popularity has happily compelled the Hamatys to start an online venture where they offer their cakes over the internet too. If you are able to visit the Cayman Islands then you should certainly include a trip to the Tortuga Rum Company to actually view how these rum-infused cakes are created but if you cannot visit the island then you can certainly order for these delicious cakes over the internet and get them delivered right at your home.

You can choose from several delicious flavors of tortuga rum cakes for yourself or for your loved ones. Notable among them are Original, Chocolate, Banana, Rum Cream Coffee, Pineapple, Key Lime, Coconut, Cinnamon Raisin, and a juicy few more. In addition, the company also offers mouth-watering rum-based fudges and truffles to pleasure your taste buds and provide a light buzz at the same time. Tortuga also has several other products devoid of any rum that also make for excellent gifts. However, it is their cakes that will surely have you drooling for more with the very first bite.

The company also offers several recipes from their website as well as CDs that can help you make a few delicious dishes right at home. However, you can be sure that any party that you organize at your home will be an instant hit when your eager guests bite into their rum-infused cake and get a pleasant surprise that will compel them to keep on eating these baked works of art. In addition, you can also prepare several rum drinks from various recipes including mojito recipes to complement those rum cakes and to enhance the rum theme of your party. These rum cakes can also be consumed when you hold a glass of the best rum chosen from various brands of rum such as el dorado rum, pyrat rum, old monk rum, myers rum, don q rum, and a select few.

Rum is wonderful and heady liquor that can be infused in various liquid and solid recipes too. That is exactly what the Hamatys of Cayman Islands did when they came up with their award-winning tortuga rum cake that will truly surprise your palate with the very first bite.

Sip happily on various types of rum to quench your thirst

If you are an enthusiastic fan of rum that wants to truly explore the exciting world of rum then you can sip happily on various types of rum to quench your thirst and your curiosity for top quality rum. There are different variants of rum that each possesses distinctive qualities to pleasure your palate with each luscious sip.

Rum is the result of painstaking fermentation, distillation, and aging of sugarcane juice or even its by-product known as molasses. Several countries in the Caribbean Sea produce excellent quality of rum thanks to the tropical and sub-tropical conditions that assist in the growth of top quality sugarcane. You will thus find various brands of barbados rum as well as different types of jamaican drinks that exude a rich taste and deep character even when they are infused in various rum recipes.

There are 3 main types of rum depending on their color, strength, and length of aging, although there are other variants amongst these types too. Rums that are slightly mild in strength and color, and usually lack any specific character other than a little sweetness usually fall in the light or white rum category. These rums can be enjoyed in the form of different cocktails where they are mixed with various ingredients such as fruits, fruit juices, coffees, creams, colas, sodas, and even other alcohols to provide a unique punch to your palate with each delicious sip. You can also create excellent mojito recipes by using the lime variants of such rums. One fine example of this rum is parrot bay rum that is available in the form of flavored rum based on white rum.

Similarly, another type of rum known as gold or amber rum can also be consumed right out of the bottle due to its slightly intense character or can again be infused in various rum recipes. Another sub-variant is spiced rum that is infused with aniseed, cinnamon, absinthe, etc to provide a unique twist to gold rum during the bottling stage itself so that you simple absorb the superb aroma and flavor of this rum once you open a rum bottle.

In your quest to explore various types of rum, you will also discover the third main variant of rum known as dark or black rum. This rum is full of character and flavor due to its long aging process in casks or barrels that allows it to absorb the aroma and flavor of those wooden storage vessels. This strong rum can be enjoyed straight or even be sipped on the rocks and several famous brands of rum such as old monk rum, don q rum, meyrs rum, el dorado rum, pyrat rum, etc produce this form of rum that falls into the premium category. If your stomach can handle extreme alcohol strength rums then you can also try out overproof rum such as bacardi 151 rum that has alcohol strength of 75.5 percent. However, you should remember to infuse this extremely potent rum into various rum recipes to take out its sting or suffer the consequences after a few sips or on the next morning.

Rum is strong and smooth liquor that can be enjoyed right out of the bottle or even when blended in various cocktails among other recipes. You can start out with milder types of rum before your senses and body is comfortable to handle potent rum that can certainly provide a heady buzz while pleasing your palate at the same time.

Fermenting, continued

Fermenting, continued
Prestige Batch Yeast or Black Label Yeast

Turbo Yeast – Page 5 of 7

Use Prestige Batch yeast or Black Label yeast to make 14% ethanol in 3 days, use 1 sachet + 6 kg sugar in 25 liters or use 8 sachets + 48 kg sugar in 200 liters (or anything in between e.g. 5 sachets + 30 kg sugar in 125 liters etc).

Use Prestige Alcohol yeast 18% and Distillers yeast 18% to make 18% ethanol in 7 days, use 1 sachet + 8 kg sugar in 25 liters. We recommend you do not scale up to larger volumes unless you have good control of liquid temperature.

Prestige Batch yeast or Black Label yeast instructions for 25 liters.

1. You need a 30 liter sized plastic bucket. Clean it with hot water (it does not need to be sterilized unless it is very dirty).
2. Calibrate to 25 liters if it is not already graduated.
3. The point of this step is to end up with a final volume of 25 liters which contains 6-kg sugar and has a start liquid temperature of around 25-30°C.
4. First add either 5 liters boiling water or 10 liters hot water into the bucket. Add 6-kg ordinary white granulated sugar (sucrose) and stir until completely dissolved (about 2 minutes). Now top up to 25 liters with cold water and stir well for 2 minutes to ensure an even sugar solution. Ideally the cold water used for topping up should be between 15-20°C although water as low as 5°C can be used, this will just make the fermentation 1-2 days longer.
5. Add the sachet contents and continue to stir until no more particles of yeast are visible to the naked eye.
The liquid should have a milky appearance with no bits in it.
6. Now leave it at warm room temperature (around 20-25°C is best) to ferment for 3 days.
7. Any air temperature between 18°C and 30°C can be used but the time taken for fermentation will be different. At 30°C it will take only 2 days (but make more volatiles!) and at 18°C it will take 7 days.
8. After fermentation this “mash” should be distilled, diluted to 40 – 45% ethanol then passed through activated carbon to remove volatiles before adding essences. See elsewhere for further details.

A super trick to improve quality
When the mash has fermented completely (use a Hydrometer to check), wait until it is crystal clear. Then draw out the mash with a siphon, leaving all yeast and impurities in the fermentation vessel. By using this method you have a crystal clear mash without yeast to distill.

The mash should clear by it self in a day or two. You can speed this up by adding a clearing agent for wine or by placing the mash in a cold place. The mash must have fermented out completely before clearing.

If the mash is cloudy, it produces badly “off” taste when the cloudiness is heated, in contact the high temperature near the heather. To avoid this bitter taste, use crystal clear mash.

Heating more gently by adding 1-2 liter of rashig rings in the boiler to divide the heat can reduce the bitter taste. It can also be avoided by heat by a hot water jacket on the boiling vessel. This has the principle of a water bath, by using a jacketed tank for heating. It is the hot water that heats the mash, not the original heat source. The common is to distill a crystal clear mash.

Instructions for larger batches

Instructions for larger batches

1.1, Instructions for making more than 200 liters using Prestige Batch yeast or Black Label yeast. The larger the volume, the more difficult it becomes to keep the liquid temperature below the lethal 37°C. The best number of sachets to use is shown below. We offer three separate measurement charts: Metric, United States, and UK



  1. Dissolve required amount of sugar into the
    same volume of hot water (e.g. use 48 liter
    hot water to dissolve 48-kg sugar). Make sure
    the sugar has completely dissolved before continuing.
  2. Top up to final volume with cold water; continue to stir until the liquid specific gravity is 1090.
  3. Make sure the liquid temperature is below 25°C then add relevant number of Prestige Batch Yeast or Black Label yeast
    sachets. Continue to stir until no more yeast particles are visible.
  4. Allow to ferment at 15-20°C air temperature for 3 days.


MAKE SURE THE LIQUID TEMPERATURE IS KEPT BELOW 35°C THROUGHOUT FERMENTATION. Introduce frozen CONTAINERS of water after 12 and 24 hours to reduce liquid temperature if necessary. You can also try to add 1/3 of the sugar first and the rest 2/3 after 1-2 days.

2.1, I do not recommend the use of high alcohol Turbos for any volume above 25 liters. For larger volumes the liquid temperature must be tightly controlled between 24 – 26°C and this will not be possible in practice even by the most experienced people. You can test to split sugar in 2 feedings or use 1 sachet of Pot Distillers Yeast per 50 liters,
more info at


Strengthen your own defenses with tea tree oil extracted out of melaleuca alternifolia plant

If you wish to protect yourself as well as your family and friends from numerous kinds of germs, bacteria, and viruses then you can definitely boost your own defenses by using tea tree oil produced from the melaleuca alternifolia plant. The benefits of this wonder plant were discovered way-back in Australia and many items with tea trea oil can now be bought to treat and prevent various ailments tea tree oil.

The medicinal qualities involving melaleuca oil were discovered more than a century earlier within Australia by their indigenous occupants which utilized the leaves of this wonder plant to get rid of numerous diseases. Studies done in the 20th century pointed out that the oil extracted from this plant held exceptional antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, the secret of the tea tree oil continued to be mostly consigned within Australia prior to the ending of the century as well as the start of 21st century when this oil as well as its reputation began to arrive at foreign shores.

In just a very small amount of time, scientists and medical professionals started to recognize the healing capabilities of the tea trea oil extracted through the humble melaleuca alternifolia plant could be employed for a multitude of applications. This particular oil is actually endowed with broad-spectrum antimicrobial attributes making it suitable to fight a variety of germs and viruses. Numerous forms of this oil were useful in the treatment of burns, scalp bacterial infections, dandruff, acne breakouts, athletes foot, teeth cavities, reduce redness as well as itchiness of the skin, and also treat several types of topical infections. The very best aspect is that when this oil is utilized in diluted form, it merely attacks dangerous viruses whilst keeping your bodys natural defenses safe and sound simultaneously.

The beauty business as well has recognized the advantages offered by melaluca oil and now incorporate this wonderful oil in numerous products like soaps, face wash, shampoos, skin lotions, creams, as well as in various forms of medications too. You are sure to uncover a number of stores as well as online stores that provide a wide range of beauty as well as health items which contain this helpful oil. Nonetheless, you should make sure that you examine all furnished directions prior to using any kind of product that contains tea tree oil and should discontinue use of that item in case you notice any kind of adverse effect including irritation, inflammation, etc.

If you have a compact home distiller in your house you may also extract this wonder oil from the leaves of the melaleuca alternifolia plant. You will need to source the leaves of this plant prior to smashing them and putting them inside your distiller along with water. After you start the distillation process through boiling the leaves, you’ll be able to collect pure oil which condenses from the other end of the distillation unit. You can utilize this oil to treat minor burns, scrapes, cuts, etc or can also use it to help remedy various forms of skin as well as scalp infections, provided you actually dilute the oil to the necessary level. This particular oil could react with your skin negatively if you use it at full strength and thus it is important to dilute it with the recommended percentage get the facts.

If you are looking to get a all natural remedy for a host of skin as well as scalp infections, or various other forms of ailments then you should definitely try out the power associated with tea trea oil in various forms. You can surely free yourself of various diseases and ailments even as you strengthen your own defenses by using tea tree oil extracted from the melaleuca alternifolia plant.

Hydrometer Conclusion by Gert Strand

HYDROMETER Conclusion by Gert Strand

In this publication I have attempted to only include the necessary facts, and to explain these carefully. Often other rules are given in books and instructions, for example hydrometer (with Oechslescale) degrees x 2 = grammes of sugar in the must, than are given here. Frequently, a table is shown in which a ruler is used. When this is worked out it does not appear to be correct.

This is because allowance has been made in the figures for the presence of extract or must. Also, the increase in volume with the addition of sugar has been allowed for.

It has been said that one only understands the hydrometer for one day, and nobody can explain it. I have made the attempt. If you now understand the hydrometer, we have achieved the impossible.

Invention Prevent Spread of Swine Flu

As you probably know already we constantly develop new products.

On the way now i 3 new product lines, you will find a quiet test sale of one of them on This is for a cold sparkling alcohol free drink.

There will be another product line for at hot alcohol free drink, probably in June.

New Absinthes and mini bulk essences for hobby and micro distilleries are other news for 2009 that is already available.

We are working on a complete product line based on a new Swedish invention, cationic food grade polymer. This is water soluble and glue to all material so hard that it even stays under water. Our estimation is that it will stay on a surface for probably over 10 years.

Cationic polymer is a plastic that is positively charged. All bacteria, virus, staphylococcus, sponge, mold, algae, moss etc. are negatively charged. They can not live on a positively charged surface. For example if a swine flu virus hits the surface, it glues to it and dies. Without any poison, from the electrical charging.

We are working to make products for 3 areas:

To protect house, roofs, buildings etc from sponge, algae, moss etc. Protects from all of those and longer that any poison.

To stop Salmonella spread in food industry and restaurants. Spray all surfaces and diseases can not spread from one piece of food to next one placed on the same surface.

To stop disease spread at doctors, hospitals etc. Where many sick people use the same toilets etc. Just spray and wipe clean – replace old Spray cleaner with our product Smittstopp – and a positively charged surface stop all bacteria, virus etc to spread from surface to next human. Use it on tap, door handle, light switch, toilet flush button etc.

Then the Swine Flu arrived

Close to the same day we had Smittstop (the name means Stop Disease Spreading in Swedish) produced the Swine flu started. Sale in Sweden jump started as people sprayed the surgical masks (most of those only give 98% or less protection) and used Smittstopp to prevent spread in toilets etc.

You can order Smittstopp from You can order Smittstopp freight free and we will start ship with English labels the 5th of May 2009.

This is a invention and there is currently no other competing products. We are the producers so there is no middlemen increasing the price. Our production is limited so we can not supply huge quantities to other countries – but we can supply the cationic polymer to any one interested for their own production. We have no problem supplying one or a few at a time directly to end user.

To test function is very easy and cheap using the “test plates” for food hygienic test.  Apply Smittstopp in a frequently used toilet on taps, door handle etc. Wait until heavy used, plate sample and send to laboratory and grow. There will be nothing, zero. Even if one take a handle inside a public buss, wait 3 weeks and take a sample – nothing. Any interested importer are urged to this test – result is simply amazing.

Valencia Spain – What An excellent Journey Encounter

Valentia, dating back again to 137 B.C., is what we now know as Valencia, Spain. If there was any confusion as to where by Valencia is or what it’s identified for, the city’s renovation with exceptional architecture changed into museums, aquariums and Imax cinemas additionally the internet hosting of the globe popular America’s Cup 2007 has unquestionably place it within the map. Valencia has undergone every kind of cultures, making the most of just about every one’s contributions, from your Romans via the Arabs, the Catholic Kings with Ferninand and Isabel, the dictatorship of Franco around the democratic Spain which now exists. All this and all that is definitely occurring nowadays is what has designed Valencia, Spain what it really is today and what it’s going to be tomorrow traveller travel.

Beginning from the 70’s, this Mediterranean metropolis began hosting critical congresses, now even better geared up along with the new vanguard Tunes Auditorium and Congress hall built in 1988 within the aged river-bed of your Turia River. Just a little even more down the river-bed, you will see a formidable group of four white fashionable structures, just about every 1 offering splendor to the eyes from your outside and an eye-opening expertise around the inside. This is the most significant cultural free of charge time resort inside a town in all Europe.

The city on the Arts and Science is made up of:

1.The Oceanographic Park
A impressive revelation with the distinctive phases of marine life, bringing what was the moment far away and unknown, shut into the human eye.

2.Hemispheric Planetarium
Brought about making sure that when all over again, the spectator can experiment for by themselves the appealing sensations of what room is about. By way of probably the most modern-day technology with Imax cinemas and laser demonstrates, you happen to be brought so shut to outer room as a result of impacting photographs and sounds.

three.The Prince Philip Science Museum
This was created to dwelling lasting science theme correlated expositions and modern technologies.

four.The Arts Palace
This constructing will quickly be completed and can be destined on the creation and diffusion on the scenic arts.

Heaps of exciting for everyone in Valencia

There are so many other sights for everyone’s likings, all positioned in the metropolis centre and really easy to reach by bus, metro or vehicle employ the service of, this sort of as the IVAM ( Valencian Institute of modern Artwork ), Guillen de Castro Avenue no. 118, open up Tuesdays to Sundays from 10 a.m. right until eight p.m. It normally expenditures 2 euros but Sundays and vacations are cost-free. The Palace of your Marquee of Dos Aguas, uncovered inside of a superbly embellished alabaster developing on the outdoors and common Valencian ceramic and horse carriages about the inside. It is actually located on Poeta Querol Avenue no. 2, open Tuesdays to Saturdays from 10 to 2, from 4 to eight but Sundays and holidays only from 10 to two. Saturday afternoons and Sunday mornings it can be no cost and about the other times it charges two.fifty euros. But do not stop below, check out on the list of a lot of tourist offices inside of the town centre and get no cost facts and timetable for all.

Las Fallas, the preferred avenue celebration in Valencia dating again to the sixteenth century is fairly an function. It really is celebrated from March 15th to nineteenth, the place in the course of five prolonged times and nights you can take pleasure in seeing more than 350 enormous carton monuments on almost every corner, religious parades made up of your area lads and lassies dressed in lovely brocade vestiments, providing bouquets of flowers on the Virgen Mary. All of this could be viewed in and throughout the Basilica Square in which the flowers are artistically built in to the Virgen’s cape, using the baby Jesus held in her arms. But when you might not program your visit or flight for today, there is certainly an excellent Fallas Museum while in the Monteolivete Square no. four which is the home with the most voted figures that have been saved from getting burnt, which is the highlight of the celebration continue reading.

Valencia, Spain and its sea adventure

All which has been brought up earlier than continues to be and will continue on for being component of this city’s living for a very long time, nevertheless the Americas Cup 2007, the most important yachting and sailing occasion while in the world will only materialize once. So if you are even now scheduling some excellent holidays and need a whole lot of new thrills, catch a flight to Valencia and e book your resort early to produce confident that your vacations will be smooth sailing!